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Full text of "Alaskan glacier studies of the National Geographic Society in the Yakutat Bay, Prince William Sound and lower Copper River regions"

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GLACIERS OF ALASKA                                        3
surveying necessary to the boundary arbitration. F. E. and C. W. Wright have briefly alluded to these glaciers and the wonderful glacial sculpture of the adjacent fiords.1
In the valley of Blue River, and adjacent northwest tributaries of Unuk River is an interesting series of recent lava flows, the latest thought to be less than 50 years old, described by Morse of the Boundary Survey. One or more of the small glaciers near Blue River is covered with ashes.2
Glaciers of Stikine River. On the lower Stikine River and partly in Canada are the Great Glacier, the Popoff or Little Glacier, the Dirt or Mud Glacier, the Flood Glacier, and many others shown on the Boundary Atlas Sheets 3 already referred to, and on one Coast Survey chart * and one U. S. Geological Survey map.5 The Stikine River glaciers were visited and briefly described by Blake in 1867,6 Hunter in 1877,7 by Muir and by Bell in 1879,8 by Dawson in 1887,9 by Miss Scidmore in 1898,10 and others. Great Glacier is an ice tongue of which only the lower sixteen miles have been mapped. The upper glacier is over 4 miles wide, the lower valley about a mile wide, and beyond this the Great Glacier spreads out to a width of four and a half miles in a piedmont bulb which enters the Stikine valley from the west, forcing the Stikine River over to the east bank. The terminus of this first large glacier in Alaska is less than 250 feet above sea level. The Dirt Glacier seems to be stagnant and moraine-coverecl. Russell shows photographs of Orlebar and Bernard Glaciers on the Stikine River,11 which Dawson states are the Great Glacier and either the Flood or Dirt Glaciers respectively. The debris carried out from these glaciers has caused the Stikine River to build a great delta seventeen miles wide which nearly ties Mitkof Island to the mainland and makes it necessary for ships to go through the dangerous Wrangell Narrows in navigating the Inside Passage.
Glaciers of Frederick Sound and Stephens Passage. This group of ice tongues includes the LeConte, Patterson, Baird, Dawes, Brown, Sumdum and Sawyer Glaciers and the unnamed glaciers of Whiting and Speel Rivers. They are shown on the Coast Survey n and Boundary Survey18 and Geological Survey14 maps. The LeConte Glacier in latitude 57° is the southernmost tidal glacier in Alaska. The Dawes, Brown, and Sawyer Glaciers also reach sea level and discharge icebergs.16 The group of glaciers near Devil's
i Bull. 847, U. S. Geol. Survey, 1908, p. 24 and map, PI. II. »Morse, Fremont, Nat. Geog. Mag., Vol. 17, 1906, pp. 178, 176. »Atlas of Award, Alaskan Boundary Tribunal, Sheets 8 and 9, « Chart 8200, U. S. Coast and Geod. Survey, 1891. « Bull. 847, U. S. Geol. Survey, 1908, PI. m.
• Blake, W. P., The Glaciers of Alaska, Russian America, Amer. Journ. Sci., 2d series, Vol. XLIV, 1867, 96-101; House Extra Doc., 177, Part II, 40th Congress, 2d Session, with map.
' Hunter, J., Map reproduced in Alaskan Boundary Tribunal, Maps and Charts accompanying the case of Great Britain, Washington, 1904, p. 2G.
• Bell, W. H., Scribner's Monthly, Vol. XVH, 1879, pp. 806-815.
• Dawson, G. M., Geol. and Nat. Host. Survey Canada,1 Ann. Kept., Vol. HI, Part 1,1889, pp. 61B-5SB.
10 Scidmore, E. R., Nat. Geog. Mag., Vol. X, 1899, pp. 6-9.
" Russell, I. C., 6th Ann. Rept., U. S. Geol. Survey, 1883-1884, PL LIV and LV. » U. S. Coast and Geod. Survey, Charts 8200, 8210, 8300.
11 Atlas of Award, Alaskan Boundary Tribunal, Sheets 9, 10, 11, 12.
« Bull. 287, U. S. Geol. Survey, 1906, PI. XXXVI; Bull. 347, 1908, PI. m.
11 See description by Sir George Simpson in September, 1841, Journey Round the World, Vol. I, p. 213, quoted by Klotz, Geog. Journ., Vol. XTV, 1899, pp. 631-632.